By Mamadou Dia
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Extra resources for A governance approach to civil service reform in Sub-Saharan Africa, Volumes 23-225
Unfortunately, commitments to these trainees already in the "pipeline" before the freeze went into effect were honored, thus undermining the effect of the freeze. Similar exceptions were also made in most other African countries where other face-to-face cultures and the resulting networks of social obligation made it difficult to rigorously enforce hiring freezes. Moreover, freezes have the drawback of denying the civil service the vigor, renewal, and lower cost of youthful entrants. c. Voluntary Departures and early retirement have generally consisted of the enforcement of a retirement program in which all civil servants over fifty- Page 7 five, or all those who have completed thirty years of service, were to be placed in automatic retirement.
Page 13 Lack of Accountability As demonstrated by the Zaire case, among others, the pre-eminence of the one-party system and its dominance over the executive, legislative and judicial bodies undermined accountability. e. the administration). Furthermore, there were few other institutions or fora for citizens to express their views collectively or individually on public issuesfew interest groups or independent research institutions. "10 While there are many different kinds of institutions which can enhance accountability, three of the most widely-used in different cultures are legislatures, interest groups and the mass media.
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