By Herbert N. Foerstel
From colonial instances to the current, the media in the USA has been topic to censorship demanding situations and laws. This entire reference advisor to media censorship presents in-depth assurance of every media format―newspapers, magazines, movies, radio, tv, and the Internet―all of which were, and remain, battlegrounds for First modification matters. each one media structure is tested in-depth, from its origins and historical past via its sleek improvement, and contours dialogue of landmark incidents and instances. Foerstel, writer of Banned within the U.S.A., the acclaimed reference consultant to e-book censorship in faculties and public libraries, bargains a quick historical past of media censorship, examines in-depth the drama of 7 landmark incidents, and comprises 31 proper lawsuits. Complementing the amount are own interviews with well-known sufferers of media censorship, who provide human voice to the fight of the media to stay loose, and an exam of censorship of the scholar press.
Fascinating examples of media censorship abound, from Peter Zenger's prerevolutionary trial for seditious libel to the fashionable tobacco industry's invocation of tortious interference to silence tv information and the present rash of net censorship incidents. bankruptcy 1 bargains a quick heritage of censorship of every of the media varieties. bankruptcy 2 positive factors indepth research of 7 landmark media censorship incidents: the trial of John Peter Zenger, H. L. Mencken and the hatrack case, John Henry Faulk and the radio blacklist, innovative magazine's expos^D'e at the H-bomb mystery, govt labeling of 3 documentary movies as political propaganda, television's tobacco wars, and Carnegie Mellon's try to censor scholars' entry to the net. bankruptcy three examines 31 media censorship proceedings from 1735 to 1997. bankruptcy four beneficial properties specific interviews with media figures considering censorship matters or cases―Paul Jarrico, Howard Morland, Peter Sussman, Daniel Schorr, Walter Cronkite, and Jerry Berman. Appendix A takes a glance at censorship and reaction concerning the scholar press in the course of the Nineteen Nineties, after the landmark Hazelwood selection in 1988―an vital subject for college students in each highschool. Appendix B incorporates a source checklist of media advocacy and censorship agencies. a particular bibliography of books and digital assets completes the textual content. This quantity is of curiosity to highschool and school scholars, academics, librarians and students, and all those who find themselves laid low with those an important First modification issues.
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Additional info for Banned in the Media: A Reference Guide to Censorship in the Press, Motion Pictures, Broadcasting, and the Internet
In December 1990, President George Bush signed the Television Violence Act, granting the television networks, cable operators and independent stations three years of immunity from antitrust regulations to allow them to establish voluntary guidelines for television violence. Many in the industry feared that the standards would leave the networks open to First Amendment lawsuits. M. M. The court rejected the broadcasters’ claim that they had adopted the policy ‘‘voluntarily,’’ saying it had been foisted upon them by the FCC.
62 A Brief History of Media Censorship • 37 Television’s early history of blacklisting has left it with a legacy of timidity and conservatism. In 1993 award-winning television writer Barbara Hall wrote, ‘‘To fight the issue of censorship in television is already an absurd project. It is currently the most censored art form in existence. Every week our scripts are scrutinized by a faceless contingent of people who tell us when we’ve crossed the line. ’’63 Because of its conservative tradition, television has had nothing comparable to radio’s high-profile rows with the FCC over indecent programming, but there is one area in which television has stretched the limits of acceptable programming: violence.
In Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson (1952) the Supreme Court further undercut the system of film censorship. The Italian film The Miracle had been attacked by the Catholic Church as sacrilege. The Miracle, based on an original story by Federico Fellini, tells the tale of a peasant woman who, under the influence of wine and religious emotion, permits a stranger, whom she takes to be Saint Joseph, to seduce her. She subsequently bears a child whom she regards as immaculately conceived. ’’35 The film was subsequently banned in New York City and New York State.
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