# Download Basic Hydraulics by P D Smith (Auth.) PDF By P D Smith (Auth.)

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When completed it will be 200 m wide. The dam is to be of reinforced concrete construction and four designs have been submitted which may be considered as having four distinct average densities of 2000, 2250, 2600 and 3000 kg/m 3 . The base of the dam 44 Elements of fluid mechanics cannot, for topographical and geological reasons, extend further than 100 m downstream of face AB. It is, of course, essential that, what­ ever head is impounded by the dam, the structure does not become unstable. This may simply be thought of as a pivotting motion about the toe of the dam C caused by the hydrostatic pressure force moment exceeding the restoring moment due to the dam weight.

10"5 at line 210 before the process is repeated. When a satisfactory F value is found the Blasius equation is used to evaluate the other friction factor value as Fl and the results are printed together with a comparison between the two values. (4) A new Reynolds number value is read and the F-value just printed is used to initiate the solution. (5) Smaller steps in F and a narrower tolerance band may be used to obtain a more accurate iterated solution. 12) in the Reynolds number regime from 3000 up to 100000 where the two friction factor values differ by less than 3%.

18) where K is the fluid bulk modulus of elasticity. 19) where V is the mean fluid velocity before closure. When the pipe is itself elastic then shock speed is'given by where d is pipe diameter, t is pipe wall thickness and E is Young's modulus of the pipe material. 6 for a pipe leading from a reservoir. This reflection process will continue with positive and negative pressure steps that gradually decay in amplitude as friction degrades the fluid kinetic energy to heat. 6 Propagation of water hammer wave and valve pressure profile In order to reduce the size of the pressure waves generated by sudden valve closure the time of closure is increased to a period in excess of 8-10 pipe periods.