By Alan Gabbey (auth.), Wolfgang Lefèvre (eds.)
It is a truism that philosophy and the sciences have been heavily associated within the age of Leibniz, Newton, and Kant; yet a extra special decision of the constitution and dynamics of this linkage is needed. the subject material of this quantity is the interactions one of the advancements in philosophy and the ameliorations that the several branches of sciences, Baconian in addition to classical, underwent in this interval. one of the subject matters addressed are the differences of metaphysics as a self-discipline, the emergence of analytical mechanics and its effects for founding physics on metaphysics, the diverging avenues of 18th-century Newtonianism, the body-mind challenge as handled by way of philosophers and physicians, and philosophical rules of class within the lifestyles sciences. As an appendix, a serious version and primary translation into English of Newton's scholia from David Gregory's property at the Propositions IV via IX booklet III of his Principia is added.
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Additional info for Between Leibniz, Newton, and Kant: Philosophy and Science in the Eighteenth Century
For an excellent account of the tricky notion of physical intlux. see O'Neill, Injluxus Physicus. Cullen's sources for the three systems of causality were probably Leibniz. or Wolt1~ or a standard Wolftlan textbook such as Baumgarten's Melaphysica (the prescribed reading in Kanfs metaphysics lectures). See tor example Baumgarten's Melaphysica (4th ed. 1757). Pars Il (Cosmologia). Caput 111 (Perfectio Universi), Sec!. 11 (Substantiarum mundanarum commercium), reprinted in Kant's Gesammelle Schriften, herausgegeben von der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschafien, Bd.
In the living man there is an immaterial thinking substance or MIND constantly present: and every phenomenon of thinking is to be considered as an affection or faculty of the mind alone. But this immaterial and thinking part of man is so connccted with the material and corporeal part of him. and particularly with the nervous system. that motions excited in this give occasion to thought: and thought. however occasioned. gives occasion to new motions in the nervous system. Then he makes a nice methodological move that Hume and Locke would have approved.
Fortunately, this additional material exists in manuscript in Cullen's Papers in the National Library of Scotland (Edinburgh), and a selection of them was collected and published by John Thompson in his 1827 edition ofCullen's Works. '" Part I of Cullen's Institutions 0/ Medicine is on Physiology. His definition of "physiology," or "animal economy," is of particular interest (Art. " COl11l11enting on this definition, he explains that physiology makes use of the teachings ofnatural philosophy, chel11istry, and anatomy.
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