By Anthony Benedetto
Well illustrated with top quality photographs, Botulinum pollutants in medical Aesthetic Practice has confirmed itself a most desirable advisor to the scientific use of other varieties of botulinum pollution for either esthetic and clinical reasons.
This moment variation keeps the entire positive aspects that made its predecessor such a success, together with particular anatomic drawings, a overview of different formulations on hand, and specimen kinds. This variation has been revised and up to date all through and contours extra new fabric on medico-legal issues and mental and cultural elements that can have an effect on the intentions of sufferers and the consequences that may be achieved.
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Extra info for Botulinum Toxins in Clinical Aesthetic Practice, Second Edition
The supraorbital and supratrochlear veins run with the corresponding arteries and nerves, and drain into the bony orbits to terminate in the orbital veins. These in turn drain into the cavernous sinus, thus creating the potential portal for the spread of disease to intracranial structures. Despite this theoretical risk, infection has not been a reported problem with BoNTA injections. Botulinum toxin has rapidly become the most, popular noninvasive cosmetic treatments currently available (10). Its cosmetic benefit derives from its ability to selectively relax localized areas of facial muscle.
Multiple superficial injections of BoNTA into this muscle can soften all of these cosmetic problems. 6 shows the lateral view of the skull, showing muscle attachments. both are a potential target for direct trauma from the needle used for BoNTA injection. In the area of the glabellar complex where such trauma could theoretically occur, the supratrochlear nerve is deep to the muscle at the level of bone. Injection of BoNTA in the middle of the 1 2 8 3 NERVES OF THE FACE Use of BoNTA is guided by a functional understanding of the muscles to be treated rather than the nerves that supply them.
The major muscle of facial expression of the lower face is the orbicularis oris, a circular muscle that encircles the mouth and functions as a sphincter. The various levators and depressors of the lips insert into this muscle and the lip itself, and originate from bony attachments above and below respectively. Contracture of the superficial, horizontally oriented fibers that travel along the upper and lower lips is responsible for the vertical rhytides seen above the upper and below the lower lips.
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