Download Buddhism, Critical Concepts in Religious Studies, Volume 2 by Paul Williams PDF

By Paul Williams

From a box basically of curiosity to expert orientalists, the examine of Buddhism has built to include inter alia, theology and spiritual reports, philosophy, cultural reviews, anthropology and comparative reports. there's now larger direct entry to Buddhism within the West than ever prior to, and Buddhist stories are attracting expanding numbers of students.

This eight-volume set brings jointly seminal papers in Buddhist experiences from an unlimited variety of educational disciplines, released during the last 40 years. With a brand new creation through the editor, this assortment is a special and unrivalled examine source for either pupil and scholar.

VOLUME II THE EARLY BUDDHIST colleges AND
DOCTRINAL heritage; THERAVADA
DOCTRINE
Acknowledgements vn
18 Theravada Buddhist sangha: a few common observations on
historical and political elements in its improvement 1
HEINZ BECHERT
19 Notes at the formation of Buddhist sects and the origins of
Mahayana
HEINZ BECHERT
20 Buddhistjhana: its nature and attainment in line with the
Pali sources
L.S. COUSINS
21 The 'five points' and the origins of the Buddhist schools
L.S. COUSINS
22 individual and self
L S. COUSINS
23 Cosmology and meditation: from the Aggaiiiia-Sutta to the
Mahayana
RUPERT GETHIN
24 Kindness and compassion as a method to nirvaQa
R.F. GOMBRICH
25 focus or perception: the frustrating of Theravada
Buddhist meditation theory
PAUL GRIFFITHS
26 Councils as principles and occasions within the Theravada
CHARLES HALLISEY
27 Saik$a-dharmas revisited: extra issues of
Mahasa~pghika origins
CHARLES S. PREBISH
zs MahasaQighika origins: the beginnings of Buddhist
sectarianism
JAN NATTIER AND CHARLES S PREBISH
29 the different our bodies of the Buddha: reflections on a neglected
aspect of Theravada tradition
FRANK E. REYNOLDS
30 at the challenge of the relation of religious perform and
philosophical idea in Buddhism
LAMBERT SCHMITHAUSEN
31 Buddhist Modernism and the rhetoric of meditative
experience
ROBERT H SHARF
32 the reworking present: an research of devotional acts of
offering in Buddhist Avadiina literature
JOHN powerful
PETER SKILLING

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Eventually it becomes possible to retain a visual or other representation of the preparatory object. 32 Thirdly there arises the semblance (patibhiiga-) nimitta. This is in a more abstract form which lacks irrelevant detail still present in the acquired nimitta. It is described as soft and delicate, much purer than the previous one. 33 It is a pure concept lacking physical reality and deriving from ideation (saiiiia-ja). 34 If then the object of concentration is, for example, the idea of blueness (nzla-kasifJa), the semblance nimitta arises as soon as this idea is brought to mind in the same way as the reflection of the face appears immediately upon glancing at a mirror.

Naturally both are viewed as necessary, the differences being in part a matter of degree and in part a question of the order of development. In practice these terms have come to refer specifically to the presence or absence of the jhiinas. One whose vehicle is calm develops proficiency in the four jhiinas and optionally also the four formless attainments (ariipasamiipattis) or the various kinds of psychic power (iddhi). He then embarks upon the development of insight. One whose vehicle is insight requires only a stage of concentration less than that needed for the attainment of jhiina and may never develop it at all.

Fear of the unknown is perhaps partly also implied. Clearly the removal of these obstacles is no mean task in itself and nor is a merely negative removal intended. In the sutta itself the removal of ill-will involves also 'sympathy for the good of all beings' (sabba-piil)a-bhiita-hitiinukampl) and similar changes are required in the other cases. 23 They are elsewhere likened to canals about a mountain stream which have to be shut off if the stream of the mind is to lose its turbulence. 24 The removal of 'sloth and torpor' is of particular interest.

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