By Pavel Koldovsky M. D. (auth.)
Interest within the common box of tumor immunology has grown phenomenally lately. The variety of guides con tinues to develop in probably exponential type and the tip isn't but in sight. lower than those stipulations, it's very tricky for anybody investigator to understand the full, or perhaps the small component during which his personal efforts needs to inevitably be constrained. Weare hence very lucky while an investigator with lengthy and extensive event within the box of tumor immunology takes the time to percentage his views of a component to that box. Dr. Koldovsky has been one of many pioneers in tumor immunology and he con tinues to give a contribution, specifically within the zone of CEA. within the current survey he has reviewed the prestige of CEA, atmosphere forth not just the literature, yet his personal interpretation of that literature. For this exercise, all employees in tumor immunology might be without a doubt grateful.
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Extra info for Carcinoembryonic Antigens
Using the same technique, SMITH (1971 b) noticed that AFP can be detected transiently in the sera of adults during the course of viral Carcinoembryonic Antigens of the Digestive Tract 31 hepatitis associated with the Australia antigen but not with acute viral hepatitis unassociated with this antigen. Even here the sensitivity of the technique seems to be important, since RUOSLAHTI and SEPPALA (1972) detect AFP in both types of hepatitis (Australia antigen negative and positive) by radioimmunoassay.
In his first paper concerning detection of alpha fetoprotein in patients with liver tumors, T ATARINOV (1964) proposed its usefulness in differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic liver tumors. ABELEV et at. (1967) compared the diagnostic value of finding AFP in patients with tumors (liver and other malignant tumors) and with noncancerous diseases of the liver. The sera from such patients were blind-tested and later correlated with results from clinical and histological examinations. AFP was determined by micro-agaroprecipitation and immunoelectrophoresis.
From the beginning of the studies on CEA, it was not clear how specific this antigen was for cancer of the digestive tract. McNEIT et al. (1969) found that specific antiserum prepared in rabbits against pooled fluid from seven ovarian cysts showed cross-reactivity in agaroprecipitation with CEA of the digestive tract. Other mucinproducing tumors such as carcinoma of lung or breast failed to show such crossreactivity. HAKKINEN et al. showed in a series of experiments (1966, 1967, 1968a, b, 1969) that gastric juice contains three distinct sulphoglycoprotein antigens: 1) a common surface (superficial) gastric sulphoglycoprotein antigen; 2) an intestinal sulphoglycoprotein antigen not present in the stomach of healthy young persons, but which can be present in deep gastric glands of persons with certain pathological conditions and in nondiseased stomachs of old persons; 3) a fetal sulphoglycoprotein antigen, which is present during the fetal period in superficial cells of the digestive tract epithelium and occasionally reappears later in adult life.
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