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By Peter Schmittinger

Chlorine is without doubt one of the most crucial inorganic uncomplicated chemical compounds it isn't simply a necessary response part for the synthesis of various natural and inorganic chemical substances and plastics, it's also of serious significance for the construction of prescribed drugs, disinfectants, bleaches and pesticides. every thing you want to learn about chlorine is defined during this booklet. It offers a pragmatic and up to date account of the clinical and technological fundamentals for the construction of chlorine and describes a variety of purposes and customers for destiny advancements. present concerns, such as environmental defense, occupational wellbeing and fitness and security points, garage and transportation, financial elements, caliber standards and research are handled in a reliable and well-balanced demeanour. Chemists, chemical engineers and chemical technique engineers in quite a few commercial sectors, engineering businesses, universities and govt professionals will surely make the most of this accomplished evaluate.

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Extra info for Chlorine-Principles and Industrial Practice

Sample text

2041. 1. Uhde Cell The Uhde cells (Fig. 22, also see Fig. 25) are available with a cathode surface area 4 - 30 m2 for chlorine production rates 10 - 1000 t/d for the complete cell installation. The brine flows in via an inlet box fitted with two pipes for the removal of chlorine. The weak brine is removed at the end of the cell. The solid cover is fixed to the side walls by clamps. The anodes are suspended in groups in carrying frames supported near the cells on transverse girders with lifting gear.

The pure chlorine gas obtained is fed into the chlorine stream. The water that evaporates from the dechlorinated brine is condensed in a cooler. The condensate, which may be chemically dechlorinated, is returned to the brine circulation system if necessary to maintain the volume of the brine circuit. If necessary, the remaining chlorine content can be further reduced by blowing with compressed air, by a second vacuum treatment, by treatment with activated carbon (631, or by chemical treatment with hydrogen sulfite, thiosulfate, sulfur dioxide, or sodium hydrogensulfide.

The catholyte is a solution of sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide because a portion of the water is converted to hydroxide at the cathode. The hydrogen produced at the same time leaves the cell through an outlet on the cathode. The solution of sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide overflows the cell through a level control pipe on the cathode, and is then commonly called cell liquor. Current Efficiency. Current efficiency is defined as the amount of product actually produced divided by the amount of product that theoretically should have been produced on the basis of the amount of direct-current electrical energy input.

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