By Charlene McQueen
An explosive raise within the wisdom of the results of chemical and actual brokers on organic platforms has resulted in an elevated figuring out of standard mobile capabilities and the results in their perturbations. The 14-volume moment version of Comprehensive Toxicology has been revised and up to date to mirror new advances in toxicology learn, together with content material by way of a number of the top researchers within the box. It is still the premiere source for toxicologists in academia, medication, and firms.
Comprehensive Toxicology moment Edition presents a distinct organ-systems constitution that permits the person to discover the poisonous results of varied ingredients on every one human process, helping in supplying diagnoses and proving crucial in events the place the poisonous substance is unknown yet its results on a approach are visible. Comprehensive Toxicology moment Edition is the main whole and worthwhile toxicology paintings on hand to researchers this day.
- Contents up to date and revised to mirror advancements in toxicology examine
- Organized with a distinct organ-system strategy
- Features complete colour all through
- Available electronically on sciencedirect.com, in addition to in a limited-edition print model
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Extra resources for Comprehensive Toxicology, Second Edition
Reproduced from Timbrell, J. A. Introduction to Toxicology, 1989, p 18, with permission of Taylor & Francis. surface area, d ¼ the diffusion distance, C2 is the concentration gradient outside the membrane, and C1 is the concentration gradient inside the membrane. The extent of absorption is directly proportional to the surface area exposed, the concentration gradient, and the length of time over which exposure occurs, and is inversely proportional to the thickness of the particular diffusion barrier.
Many chemicals bind to plasma proteins, especially albumin and globulins. Since only the unbound chemicals are free to react with targets in tissues, extensive protein binding can often limit the toxicity of a chemical. However, because the binding is often reversible, it permits the bound chemical to dissociate from the protein, thereby returning the chemical to the circulation. For chemicals that are highly bound to plasma proteins, even a relatively small shift in protein binding can have a substantial effect on the distribution.
There are a multitude of enzymatic pathways that are capable of these reactions, and the qualitative and quantitative differences in the ability of different organs to conduct such reactions often underlie the organ-specific effects of many chemicals. For example, the metabolism of sulfonamides in urine by acetylation results in the formation of crystals and tissue damage in the kidney. In contrast, the liver is the most common site of toxicity for chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, largely because of the ability of this organ to rapidly biotransform these compounds into reactive intermediates.
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