# Download Computational Hydraulics by C. A. Brebbia and A. J. Ferrante (Auth.) PDF

By C. A. Brebbia and A. J. Ferrante (Auth.)

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Sample text

The study of many problems can therefore be considered divided into two parts: (a) the boundary layer itself in which a large velocity gradient exists, giving rise to large shear stresses; (b) the fluid outside the boundary layer in which viscous forces are negligible by comparison with inertia or other forces. The type offluidflowoccurring in the boundary layer may be turbulent or laminar, depending largely on the relative values of viscosity and inertia. Turbulent flows are characterised by random components of velocity in all directions, including components perpendicular to the main flow.

98, is introduced. 22) The diverging part of the meter has a small angle to gradually reduce the velocity to its original value. 14. The dissipation of energy for these two meters is much larger than for the previous one, but they are popular due to their reduced cost. 12 derive an expression relating the volume rate of flow with the manometer reading. 14 Orifice meter (d) where Dx and D2 are the diameters at sections 1 and 2, respectively. 15. The reservoir and the free surface are assumed to be large by comparison with the dimensions of the orifice.

Shape and Flow. The Fluid Dynamics of Drag, Anchor, New York (1961) WEBBER, N. Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers, E. N. 85 and kinematic viscosity 5 x 10" 4 m 2 s" 1 . 01 m 3 s" 1 . 04 m 3 s" 1 (v= 1 x 10" 6 m2 s"1). Calculate the head loss per kilometre if the pipe is made from galvanised iron and also if it is made from concrete. 2 x 10" 4 m 2 s"1). Assume laminar flow, a pipe of diameter 20 mm and a flow rate of 10" 6 m 3 s" 1 (p = 1818 kg m"3). 3 flows in a 5 cm diameter cast iron tube at a velocity of 20 cm s " í .