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Comprises a few 4,500 entries and approximately 1,000 figures, formulation, and tables. Entries contain citations of contemporary literature. This 3rd version bargains many new entries reflecting advances within the realizing of molecular and mobilephone biology, metabolic pathways, and the selection of macromolecular st
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Extra resources for Concise Encyclopedia of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
CDNA Cloning of Human Placental Leucine Aminopeptidase/Oxytocinase' / Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 56-61] A m i n o p r o p i o n i c acid: see Alanine. Aminopterin: 4-amino-4-deoxyfolic acid (see Vitamins, folic acid), a cytostatic agent used in the management of some cancers. It inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase, which reduces the folate coenzymes required for Purine biosynthesis (see) and thymine production (see Pyrimidine biosynthesis), and thus prevents D N A synthesis. However, it is toxic to nondividing cells as well, and cannot be tolerated indefinitely.
A. , etc, according to the position of the carbon that carries the -NH 2 (Fig. 1). Carboxy| group | NH3 α-Amino group Fig. 1. Amino acids. Structure of an α-amino acid 29 Amino acids Proteins and peptides are polymers of α-A. , which are also occur in the free form in all living cells and body fluids. The twenty A. a. encoded in messenger R N A (see protein biosynthesis, Genetic code) occur in proteins and are known as proteogenic or proteinogenic A . a. (Table 1). The occurrence of nonproteogenic A.
A . a. are amphoteric, since they possess both N H 2 and C O O H groups, and their solutions are ampholytes. In the solid state and in aqueous solution between p H 4 and 9, they are zwitterions: H 3 + NC H R - C O O (Fig. ). With a few exceptions, they are highly soluble in water, ammonia and other polar solvents, but barely so in nonpolar and less polar solvents such as ethanol, methanol and acetone. A. a. with hydrophilic side chains are m o r e soluble in water. The water solublility of an A.
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