By David Harvey
Liberty and freedom are often invoked to justify political motion. Presidents as different as Woodrow Wilson, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan, and George W. Bush have outfitted their guidelines on a few model of those noble values. but in perform, idealist agendas usually flip bitter as they confront particular conditions at the flooring. proven via incidents at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo Bay, the pursuit of liberty and freedom can result in violence and repression, undermining our belief in common theories of liberalism, neoliberalism, and cosmopolitanism.
Combining his passions for politics and geography, David Harvey charts a worldly order extra applicable to an emancipatory kind of international governance. Political agendas are likely to fail, he argues, simply because they forget about the complexities of geography. Incorporating geographical wisdom into the formation of social and political coverage is accordingly an important situation for actual democracy.
Harvey starts off with an insightful critique of the political makes use of of freedom and liberty, in particular through the George W. Bush management. Then, via an ontological research into geography's foundational concepts—space, position, and environment—he appreciably reframes geographical wisdom as a foundation for social concept and political motion. As Harvey makes transparent, the cosmopolitanism that emerges is rooted in human adventure instead of illusory beliefs and brings us toward reaching the liberation we search.
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In 2012, 16-year-old José Antonio Elena Rodriguez was killed after Border Patrol agents ﬁred 14 shots at him at the Arizona-Mexican border after border agents claimed that Rodriguez threw stones at them over the border wall. 75 An environment of fear and intimidation has become the norm for these Indigenous peoples in their ancestral homeland. In Latin America, some positive news emerges, not because of globalization forces, but despite them. 76 The drop in poverty rates was evident especially in Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Colombia and largely attributable to heavy infusion of government spending on social programs targeting the poor, especially food production and supports in a global climate where food prices and the global recession increased pressure on national budgets elsewhere in the world.
14 The same ideology of globalized capitalism, privatization, and deregulation was foisted by the World Bank and the IMF on the former Soviet Union 1. 21st Century Globalization 25 and the Socialist bloc countries in the early 1990s. 16 Another severely debilitating factor has been the radical drop in the prices of major commodities on the world market, particularly agricultural products in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, for export to the core countries of the North. “Substitutionist” technologies in the core rich countries have had a major negative effect on workers and producers in the underdeveloped countries.
76 The drop in poverty rates was evident especially in Peru, Ecuador, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay, and Colombia and largely attributable to heavy infusion of government spending on social programs targeting the poor, especially food production and supports in a global climate where food prices and the global recession increased pressure on national budgets elsewhere in the world. 78 The country is now reputed to have the lowest income inequality in Latin America. Venezuela of course has embarked on a Bolivarian revolution- 38 The Cost of Globalization ary strategy based on a governmental policy of 21st century socialism as late president Hugo Chavez proclaimed, being a ﬁerce opponent of the neoliberalist policies imposed by globalization.
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