By World Health Organization
This new quantity within the Environmental future health standards sequence offers an summary of dermal absorption and its attention within the possibility review of chemical compounds. It describes the equipment to be had to evaluate dermal absorption, the importance of epidermis as a direction of publicity and the translation of result of dermal absorption experiences for possibility evaluate. additionally, it provides and discusses present issues of curiosity within the box of dermal absorption.
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Additional info for Dermal Absorption (Environmental Health Criteria Series)
In Vitro Tesfs for Dermal Absorption Although viable skin (Bronaugh, 2004b) is preferred, especially metabolism for studies. non-viable skin can also be used for certain tests. OECD Test Guideline 428 (OECD,2004c) allows a number of skin types and methods of skin preparation for the measurement of dermal absorption in vitro. g. g. rat and human skin). However, the Task Group's recommendation(see chapter 13) is to use human skin as the gold standard when the dermal absorption potential of a chemical is required for human health risk assessment purposes.
2003). In a set of 19 pesticidestested in the rat in vivo to determinethe fate of the skin reservoir, it was found that absorption from the washed skin continued for 15 pesticides at all doses tested. 21 EHC235:Dermal Absorption However, only nine showed an increase in systemic concentrations (Zendzian,2003). , 1988). 3. 4. 2). Percutaneousabsorption occurs mainly transepidermally (across the stratum comeum intracellularly and intercellularly); for many chemicals, transport through appendagesis not usually important in humans (see chapter 3).
All cell layers and locations of the two dendritic cell types, melanocytes (A) and Langerhans cells (B), are shown (Maibach & Patrick, 2001). A. Hayes. Reproduced by permission of Routledgeffaylor & Francis Group, LLCI 12 Skin Structureand Function Basal layer (stratum germinativum) keratinocytes are metabolically active cells with the capacity to divide. Some of the resulting daughter cells of the basal layer move outward and differentiate. The cells adjacent to the basal layer start to produce lamellar granules, intracellular organelles that later fuse with the cell membrane to release the neutral lipids that are thought to form a barrier to penetration through the epidermis (see next paragraph).
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