By Pål Skalle; Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet Institutt for petroleumsteknologi og anvendt geofysikk
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Extra resources for Drilling fluids and borehole hydraulics : kompendium
3 ppb), added after shale. 2 Fluid loss control Fluid loss to permeable formations is reduced through increasing the viscosity of the fluid phase. Non-ionic, low MW polymers are applied, and will therefore become an integrated part of the fluid phase. They do not interact with the solids. The filtrate from filtration tests in the filter press is a surprisingly clear fluid, consisting of water and the fluid loss additives, which are in the size range of molecules. 3 Friction reducers Some special polymer suspensions provides much lower friction than the base fluid’s rheology predicts.
57). Absolute roughness, , in a pipe in service will increase with time due to corrosion and scale build up. Figure 4-12: Moody friction factors vs. roughness. Roughness for new pipe materials is shown in Table 4-2. com 49 Drilling Fluid Engineering Hydraulic friction in the circulating system Table 4-2: Equivalent roughness calculated on basis of experimental data. The uncertainty is +/- 50 %. 00 (smooth) Concrete Wood Cast Iron Galvanized iron Commercial steel Drawn steel tubing Glass For non-Newtonian fluids the effective viscosity should be applied.
This is in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. Submerged exit losses are independent of geometry. In sudden expansions, the loss coefficient can be determined by simple analysis. Conservation of mass, momentum and energy are summarized here: mass : momentum : Bernoullis : A1vi 2v2 p1 A2 p2 A1 A2v2 v2 v1 2 2 p p1 v1 p v 2 2 loss g 2 g g 2 g g Please click the advert what‘s missing in this equation? You could be one of our future talents MAERSK INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY & SCIENCE PROGRAMME Are you about to graduate as an engineer or geoscientist?
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