By R.E. Bartlett

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Extra info for Engineering-Sewerage

Example text

They should be specified for use with sewage. To avoid deposition of solids on the seating, reflux valves on sewage rising mains should always be fixed on a horizontal section of pipeline. Doors and door seatings should be of gunmetal, while the hinge pins should be of stainless steel. Air valves for sewage rising mains should be specially designed for use with sewage and should preferably have both large and small orifices. This ensures that large volumes of air are quickly released while the main is being filled; small accumulations of air or gas can be released while the main is under pressure; and sufficient air is admitted to the main when the pressure falls below atmospheric pressure (see Fig.

No. 26. ‘Making Concrete’. No. 39. ‘Cements Other than Ordinary Portland Cement’. No. 60. ‘Ready Mixed Concrete’. All concrete should be properly cured to obtain the full advantage of quality control. The ‘setting’ of concrete is part of the process of the hydration of the cement, and any excessive loss of moisture through evaporation at that stage will entail a loss in strength of the concrete. 9 MINIMUM TIMES FOR THE REMOVAL OF SOFFIT FORMS (IN DA YS) Location Ordinary Portland cement concrete Cold weather, 2°-5°C Normal weather, about 15°C Slab soffit forms (props left under) 10 Beam soffit forms (props left under) 14 Props to slabs 21 Props to beams 28 With acknowledgement to The Council of The Institution of Civil Engineers.

Flanged pipes and fittings are available in both grey iron and ductile iron. SEWERAGE 21 STEEL PIPES Steel pipes are rarely used for gravity sewers, as they are more expensive than pipes of the more traditional materials. Steel pipes also need protection against corrosion from sewage. They are used for some inverted siphons and rising mains. Steel pipes are manufactured to BS 534 and are available in diameters up to 1800 mm (bitumen-lined welded pipes) and up to 300mm (bitumen-lined seamless pipes).