By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Transportation Research Board, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographic
Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical troublesome areas, nationwide examine Council
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Extra resources for Managing Carbon Monoxide Pollution in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas
5 ppm or greater; and a violation is two or more exceedances within a calendar year. 5 ppm or greater. Vulnerable Areas and the Form of the CO Standard The form of the CO standard, where a violation occurs upon the second and all subsequent exceedances in a calendar year, contributes to the difficulties that meteorological and topographical problem areas have in attaining the standard. A significant probability of an exceedance exists with the current attainment test because of the stochastic nature of ambient air pollutant concentrations (Gibbons 2002).
However, the situation improved fairly rapidly, primarily due to vehicle pollution controls. By the year 2000, only four locations (Birmingham, Alabama; Calexico, California; Lynwood, California; and Fairbanks, Alaska) reported exceedances of the 8-hour standard (Table 1-1). As of the end of 2002, both Lynwood and Fairbanks reported 2 years with no violation of the CO standard. , nearby hills that inhibit wind flow and temperature inversions that inhibit vertical pollutant dispersion). Attainment of the healthbased NAAQS for CO has proved somewhat difficult under those conditions.
The most recent review was published in 2000 (EPA 2000a). EPA originally designated an area as being in “nonattainment” of the 8-hour standard if the second-highest 8-hour average CO concentration measured during a calendar year (known as the “design value”) was greater than 9 ppm. 4 ppm, and “not classified” if recent data were insufficient to determine whether the standard was met. Moderate areas that did not reach attainment by July 1996 could be reclassified by EPA as serious. Nonattainment areas are required to submit a state implementation plan (SIP) to EPA that includes a characterization of pollutant concentrations and emissions, a description of the emissions reductions the area plans to make, and an “attainment demonstration” showing how the emissions reductions will enable the area to attain and maintain compliance with the NAAQS.
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