Download Molten Salt Technology by David G. Lovering PDF

By David G. Lovering

This fourth quantity within the sequence opens a few new arenas within the realm of molten salts expertise, with examine experiences on amides, amide combos, and their electrochemical houses; chromatography in liquid natural salts; thermal conductivity; magnetic, calorimetric, and ultra-high-pressure degree

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Sample text

It consists of a steel shell lined with a thermally insulating nonconducting refractory material of undisclosed composition, and employs graphite as electrode material. 5 wt % MgCI 2 • Movement induced by anodically evolved chlorine is used to sweep aluminum globules from the cathodes into a compartment at the bottom of the cell. The pumping effect of the chlorine bubbles also causes the electrolyte to circulate in the electrode compartments. In the absence of detailed published information on progress by Alcoa, it is not clear whether the new process is likely to be commercially successful.

Again, aluminum of good purity was obtained at high anode current efficiency. On the basis of work up to 1970, it appeared that aluminum chloride electrolysis could be developed to operate successfully on a large scale but the economics were uncertain. Compared with the Hall-Heroult process the potential advantages and disadvantages of the process can be summarized as follows: Potential advantages 1. Energy saving arising from the lower operating temperature of 700-7 50°C, and the relatively high conductivity of chloride melts, compared with fluorides.

Indirect methods involving cryoscopy also indicate lower values in the 20%-45% range. Oxygen ions and fluoride ions are rather similar in size, so that when alumina is added to molten cryolite, partial substitution of fluorine by oxygen leads to the formation of oxyfluoride ions. The melt may then be regarded as a mixture of Na + ions and AIOF1-x and AIF§ -Y complex ions. On the basis of theoretical considerations and experimental work involving calorimetry, cryoscopy, and CO 2 dissolution studies, many structural entities have been proposed.

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