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By John N. Hatchcock, John N. Hathcock

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Sulfate test mercapto test 1 Fig. 11. Biochemical toxicogenesis. I 2. General Principles 41 mostly electrophilic, biologically alkylating intermediates (Fig. 11). Since the true or ultimate toxicant in fact is formed by metabolic biotoxification from a pretoxicant, the toxicokinetic phase clearly has the character of a toxicogenic phase. Those groups in the molecule of the pretoxicant that are essentially involved in its conversion to the ultimate toxicant can be indicated as toxicogenic groups.

Teratogenicity D. Reproduction (all aspects other than teratogenicity) E. Potentiation F. Skin and eye effects G. Behavioral effects B. Risk Assessment If a substance is a carcinogen, the objective of toxicological testing is to provide data that will allow risk extrapolation to humans. If the substance is a potential food additive, risk assessment for carcinogenicity is lower in priority because the substance probably will be banned under the Delaney Clause, which prohibits carcinogenic food additives.

This approach might be called toxicography. Modern toxicology aims at the analysis and understanding of the mechanisms of toxic action and thus deals with the study of the underlying predominantly biochemical processes. Insight is gained into the various factors involved in dose-response relationships, such as circumstances and route of exposure, duration of exposure, species, e t c . , and in the relationship between the chemical structure (chemical characteristics) of the toxicant and its action.

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