Download Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action by Phebe Cramer PhD PDF

By Phebe Cramer PhD

Integrating concept, study, and sensible functions, this well timed e-book offers a complete exam of safety mechanisms and their function in either general improvement and psychopathology. the writer describes how young children and adults mobilize particular different types of defenses to keep up their mental equilibrium and guard vanity, relatively in events of trauma or pressure. Many lucid examples illustrate what those mechanisms seem like in lifestyle; the effect of age, gender, and character modifications; what occurs while defenses are used maladaptively; and the way they're laid low with psychotherapy. demanding situations in overview are thought of, and empirically supported tools and ways are mentioned intensive.

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Additional info for Protecting the Self: Defense Mechanisms in Action

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2. Defense use in five age groups: Replication. 28 DEFENSES IN EVERYDAY LIFE A third independent study using the DMM to assess age differences also yielded results confirming the original study. Adolescents in the 11th grade were found to use more identification and less denial than students in the fifth grade (Raush, 1994). A similar decrease in the DMM assessment of the use of denial was found in a fourth study by Silverman (1999), and an increase in identification from grade 4 to grade 6 was found by Avery (1985).

Because of its cognitive simplicity, it is also considered an “immature” defense. Projection is more complex; it requires the individual to differentiate between what is inside the self and what is outside, and it assumes the establishment of a set of standards regarding what is acceptable to the self and what is not. This defense operates by attributing the internal, unacceptable thought or feeling to something or someone outside of the self. Because of the greater cognitive complexity, this defense is more mature than denial.

In the case of the DMRS, the individual defense scales are grouped into seven categories or hierarchical levels. Although the results of selected individual defenses from both of these measures are sometimes also reported, the low incidence and low reliability of the individual defense scales reduce their likelihood of providing significant findings. Thus, for practical purposes, the DSQ and DMRS provide three or seven defense scales. Sometimes these are further collapsed into a single measure of defense maturity (ODF; Hersoug, Sex- Introduction 17 ton, & Hoglend, 2002).

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