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The temperance movement in nineteenthcentury America also wrought changes in evangelical practice. Unfermented wine—grape juice—was substituted for wine, and the common cup was jettisoned for hygienic reasons in favor of small, individual-sized containers. Protestant Demographics Several factors make quantification of Protestants difficult. First, it is nearly impossible to find evangelicals by denomination. While many denominations are identifiably evangelical—the Assemblies of God, the General Association of Regular Baptists, or the Church of God in Christ, among many others—many evangelicals remain part of mainline Protestant denomi-    27 nations, so they would not show up in statistical analysis by denominations.

The Lord’s Supper, also known as Holy Communion or, in more highchurch circles, Holy Eucharist, refers to a commemoration of the Last Supper Jesus shared with his disciples before his crucifixion. Liberal Protestants view Holy Communion as essential to the building of community, but because evangelicals have generally shied away from sacramentalism (in part because of its association with Roman Catholicism), many hold to a “memorialist” view of the Lord’s Supper. In this interpretation, the bread and the wine of Holy Communion merely remind us of the death of Christ; they do not necessarily impart grace to the believer, as in the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation.

17 Another factor leading to the mainline decline was the insularity of denominational leaders. Once the executives settled into their offices overlooking Riverside Drive in Manhattan they started to lose touch with the people in the pews, many of whom considered denominational officials too liberal, both theologically and politically. These congregants voted with their feet, many of them finding their way to evangelical churches. Belatedly (almost comically), mainline denominations recognized the folly of their New York City location and sought to reconnect with the grass roots by moving their offices to the heartland—the Presbyterians to Louisville, Kentucky; the United Church of Christ to Cleveland; the Evangelical Lutheran Church to Chicago.

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