Download Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy by Bartel Van Der Waerden PDF

By Bartel Van Der Waerden

Whoever desires to comprehend the genesis of recent technological know-how has to stick with 3 traces of improvement, all beginning in antiquity, which have been introduced jointly within the paintings of ISAAC NEWTON, specifically 1. historical arithmetic => DESCARTES 2. historic Astronomy => COPERNICUS: I=> NEWTON three. old Mechanics => GALILEO => HUYGENS In technological know-how Awakening I (Dutch version 1950, first Eng1ish variation 1954, moment 1961, first German version 1956, moment 1965) i've got the 1st 1ine, giving an overview of the improvement of arithmetic in Egypt, Babylonia, and Greece. quantity II, facing Egyptian and Baby1onian Astronomy first seemed in German less than the name 'Die Anfange der Astronomie' (Noordhoff, Groningen 1965 and Birkhau ser, Basel 1968). the amount used to be written in collaboration with PETER HUBER (Swiss Federal university of know-how, Zurich). HUBER has written huge elements of Chap ters three and four, particularly all transcriptions of cuneiform texts in those chapters. I additionally had a lot support from ERNST WEIDNER (Graz), MARTIN VERMASEREN (Amsterdam), JOSEF JANSEN (Leiden) and MANU LEUMANN (Zurich).

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Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy

Whoever desires to comprehend the genesis of recent technology has to keep on with 3 traces of improvement, all beginning in antiquity, that have been introduced jointly within the paintings of ISAAC NEWTON, particularly 1. historical arithmetic => DESCARTES 2. historical Astronomy => COPERNICUS: I=> NEWTON three. historic Mechanics => GALILEO => HUYGENS In technology Awakening I (Dutch variation 1950, first Eng1ish variation 1954, moment 1961, first German version 1956, moment 1965) i've got the 1st 1ine, giving an overview of the improvement of arithmetic in Egypt, Babylonia, and Greece.

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The text describes the positions as follows: 'over the left ear' or 'over the left shoudler', etc. According to 0. NEUGEBAUER, the text was mechanically copied again and again without the scribe noticing that after a time the dates could no Ionger be valid. In later times these methods fell into oblivion. The Babylonians and Greeks had much better methods for astronomical time determination and much more accurate star catalogues. , under the Ptolemies, in the pronaos of the Great Temple at Edfu.

He diseussed the problern of dropping a perpendieular from a point to a line in the plane, beeause he ASTRONOMY IN ANCIENT EGYPT 43 found this construction necessary for astronomy (PROKLOS, Commentary on Euclid I, 12). He determined the inclination of the ecliptic. Shortly afterwards a Pythagorean found the construction for the regular 15-sided polygon inscribed in a circle 1 ). According to PRO KLOS, this construction was included in the Elements because of its utility in astronomy, for the side of the regular 15-sided polygon is just the distance between the poles of the ecliptic and equator.

This report probably stems from an old Pythagorean tradition; we do not know how reliable it is. 1) On Euooxos' parapegma, see P. TANNERY, Memoires scientifiques II, p. 236. ASTRONOMY IN ANCIENT EGYPT 41 Geometry HERODOTOS (li 109), ArusTOTLE (Metaphysics, A 1) and alllater writers are in agreement over the fact that geometry originated in Egypt. PROKLOS, whose source is probably the lost History of Mathematics of EUDEMOS, describes the circumstances more exactly: Just as trade and business resulted among the Phoenicians in the beginnings of the exact science of numbers, so too the reasons indicated gave rise to geometry among the Egyptians.

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