By William G. Davenport and Matthew J. King (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Sulfuric Acid Manufacture. Analysis, Control and Optimization
54 O2-in-furnace gas concentrations are measured with zirconium oxide sensors (Ametek, 2005; Weiss and Puricelli, 2004). They are controlled by adjusting air input rate. 6 Preparation of Offgas for SO2 Oxidation and H2SO4Making Decomposition furnace offgas is: hot (~1300 K) dusty (~1 g particulate/Nm 3 of gas) concentrated in H20(g) (25+ volume%) too weak in O2 for catalytic SO2 oxidation. It must, therefore, be: (a) cooled (b) treated for dust and H20(g) removal (c) strengthened with O2, by adding air.
The decomposition reaction is: H2804(~) --). 1). 1). A small amount of heat is obtained from oxidizing the spent acid's hydrocarbons. Sulfur burning has the advantages that it increases SO2 concentration in decomposition furnace offgas and H2804 production rate. g. 3) all of which: (a) require heat (b) produce H20(g). g. molten sulfur or natural gas. H20(g) is removed by condensation (Fig. 1) and dehydration (Chapter 6). 2 Spent acid spraying Spent acid is sprayed into a decomposition furnace in the form of 500-1000 ~tm droplets (Dafft and White, 2002).
Furnace temperature is measured with thermocouples. It is controlled to -~ 1300 K by adjusting fuel combustion rate and air preheat temperature. Feed forward control based on scheduled changes in spent acid composition and feed rate is employed to optimize the process (Rohm and Haas, 2003). 2 02 content effects Low 02 levels in the decomposition furnace gas give sulfur vapor in the gas. This sulfur sublimes and plugs downstream cooling and cleaning equipment (Monsanto Enviro-Chem, 2005). 5 volume% (Lang, 1998).
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