Download The Siddhāntasundara of Jñānarāja: An English Translation by Toke Lindegaard Knudsen PDF

By Toke Lindegaard Knudsen

A treasure for someone attracted to early smooth India and the heritage of arithmetic, this primary English translation of the Siddhāntasundara finds the interesting paintings of the scholar-astronomer Jñānarāja (circa 1500 C.E.). Toke Lindegaard Knudsen starts off with an advent to the traditions of old Hindu astronomy and describes what's identified of Jñānarāja’s lifestyles and relations. He interprets the Sanskrit verses into English and gives professional observation at the type and substance of Jñānarāja's treatise.

The Siddhāntasundara includes a accomplished exposition of the method of Indian astronomy, together with tips to compute planetary positions and eclipses. It additionally explores deep, probing questions about the workings of the universe and sacred Hindu traditions. In a philosophical dialogue, the treatise seeks a synthesis among the cosmological version utilized by the Indian astronomical culture and the cosmology of a category of texts sacred in Hinduism. In his discourse, which incorporates a dialogue of the course of down and adhesive antipodeans, Jñānarāja rejects yes ideas from the astronomical culture and reinterprets rules from the sacred texts. He additionally constructs a fancy poem at the seasons, many verses of that have layers of that means, one describing a season, the opposite a god's actions in that season.

The Siddhāntasundarais the final significant treatise of Indian astronomy and cosmology to obtain critical scholarly realization, Knudsen’s cautious attempt unveils the 500-year-old Sanskrit verses and exhibits the shrewdpermanent quirkiness of Jñānarāja's writing variety, his prepared use of arithmetic, and his refined philosophical arguments.

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Additional info for The Siddhāntasundara of Jñānarāja: An English Translation with Commentary

Sample text

The events illustrate the situation in the area at the time, including the time of J˜ n¯anar¯aja, which saw general unrest between rivaling Islamic kingdoms. a writings, J˜ n¯anar¯aja makes no mention at all of the sociopolitical environment of his times. 130, n. 93. 35 See Haig 1928, 704. 36 See Haig 1928, 435. 130). 37 See Haig 1928, 435. 38 See Firishtah 1971, 132. 39 See Haig 1928, 324. 40 See Haig 1928, 325, 436. 41 See Pingree 1997, 84. 44 In addition, S¯ uryad¯ asa has a verse in the S¯ uryaprak¯ a´sa that describes his father’s literary output (see Source 3 above).

The method described in the verse is an ancient one given by Heron of Alexandria in his Metrica;91 we will refer to it in the following as Heron’s method. Heron’s method allows one to compute the square root of any given positive number by means of an initial approximation and iteration. 93 Before J˜ n¯anar¯aja, the methods given in various mathematical works were not based on iteration, but were closed formulae. it¯ adhy¯ aya (Berlin 833). 91 See Berggren 2002, 35. , Datta and Singh 1935–38 (where an English translation is given, but no Sanskrit or other reference) and Bag 1979, 101 (Sanskrit given with a mistake).

J˜ n¯ anar¯aja must have read the Br¯ ahmasphut. 85 J˜ ´siroman. i of Bh¯ askara II. Both Bh¯askara II and the Siddh¯ anta´siroman. i are mentioned by name, and the Siddh¯ anta´siroman. 16–17, and Plofker and Knudsen 2008a). 239–240. asiddh¯ anta used are Dvivedin 1902 and Ikeyama 2002. 266–267. 563–595, Pingree 1976a, and Plofker and Knudsen 2008b. 254–263. 224). asiddh¯ anta have been edited (see Ikeyama 2002). 125–127 and Pingree 1978a, 614. 23. 83–84 and the commentary thereon). Islamic influence in the Siddh¯ antasundara As we have seen, the region in which J˜ n¯ anar¯ aja lived had been under Islamic control for a long time when the Siddh¯ antasundara was written.

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