By Robert C. Koons, George Bealer
Twenty-three philosophers learn the doctrine of materialism locate it in need of. The case opposed to materialism contains arguments from awake event, from the solidarity and identification of the individual, from intentionality, psychological causation, and information. The individuals contain leaders within the fields of philosophy of brain, metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology, who reply ably to the latest models and defenses of materialism. The modal arguments of Kripke and Chalmers, Jackson's wisdom argument, Kim's exclusion challenge, and Burge's anti-individualism all play a component within the development of a strong cumulative case opposed to the materialist examine software. a number of papers handle the consequences of latest mind and cognitive study (the psychophysics of colour notion, blindsight, and the results of commissurotomies), including a posteriori arguments to the classical a priori critique of reductionism. all the present types of materialism--reductive and non-reductive, functionalist, eliminativist, and new wave materialism--come below sustained and trenchant assault. furthermore, a wide selection of possible choices to the materialist perception of the individual obtain new and illuminating awareness, together with anti-materialist types of naturalism, estate dualism, Aristotelian and Thomistic hylomorphism, and non-Cartesian money owed of substance dualism.
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Additional resources for The Waning of Materialism
4 L. BonJour materialism: arguments by elimination are always dubious in philosophy, and never more so than here, where the central phenomenon in question (that is, consciousness) is arguably something of which we still have little if any real understanding. Instead, materialism seems to be one of those unfortunate intellectual bandwagons to which philosophy, along with many other disciplines, is so susceptible—on a par with logical behaviorism, phenomenalism, the insistence that all philosophical issues pertain to language, and so many other views that were once widely held and now seem merely foolish.
Even if she could somehow focus on the speciﬁc symbol that refers to the Middle East and tell that it is functioning in a way that determines the object of my conscious thought (even though there is no reason to think that she could in fact do these things), she will not on this basis alone be able to tell what it is that this symbol in fact refers to. ²¹ Thus she will need once again to appeal to external causal relations of various sorts. But how then am I able to be aware of or understand ‘‘from the inside’’ what I am thinking about?
It does, however, imply that mental content cannot be fully and determinately encoded in the brain’s physical condition. In ‘Substance Dualism: A Non-Cartesian Approach,’ E. J. Lowe defends a dualism, not of minds and bodies, but of persons (or subjects of experience) and merely physical objects. Unlike Descartes, Lowe supposes that persons have both mental and physical properties. Lowe takes the central argument for substance dualism to be the difference in identity or persistence conditions between persons and their bodies.
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